Our one frequency inverter which drives 0.37 KW 400 V dosing pump motor intermittently (once in a month or once in two months) shows DC link fault and the speed is reduced to zero. This motor used to do changeover weakly. Pump NO: 1 never has such problem, pump NO: 2 only have this problem. We checked the motor found OK, checked the control circuit found ok, replaced with same new inverter still the same problem comes. We thought of incoming power supply problem so we swapped power supply cable from motor 1-2 but still the DC link fault comes in pump NO: 2. Then some of our experts said it is because the inductor is connected in the circuit, once remove the inductor this fault will not come again. But after removal of the inductor also same problem comes. From the previous history of work orders we found that this motor is a rewound motor, before rewinding there was no fault history at all. This motor is running always perfectly without any faults in manual control. Fault comes only in automatic control.
Could you please tell me what is the real problem?
Is it because of rewinding of the motor; winding geometry might have changed that affects the frequency inverter?
If this is the problem then why this fault is not coming whenever it is in service? (It waits for 1month or two months some time the fault comes in a weak also)
Is that the inverter will cause any problem because the inductor is in disconnected condition?
What is exactly the DC link fault and what are the reasons it can come in the inverter?
Why the DC link fault comes in when it is in automatic operation only?
Have you compared the good unit to the bad unit?
Could there be any mechanical issues loading the motor?
Check that the current level on the bad motor is the same as the good motor.
It sounds as if the rewind data is not correct and the motor is taking high current. If the rewind data is correct the core loss may be high.
The procedures you have gone through would indicate that the motor is the issue. My advice would be to go to the OEM and purchase a new motor or if it is a standard motor your regular supplier should be able to supply them. It could even be beneficial to purchase two new motors and keep the existing good one as a spare.
The noise level created by the motor at any speed is in a fixed environment, take two motors same HP, Speed, Enclosure, and the applied voltage could be a factor of the noise, the installed conditions of a 1000 motors could vary from alignment to load, to piping connected to load, to actual load.
What are you or the customer looking for? One 5 HP motor versus another 5HP motor, one in a 50,000 sq foot plant, the other in a 500 square foot plant, while the motor under ideal isolated test conditions might be X, the noise generated from the motor in different conditions could be blamed on the motor.
Would be interested in the question broken down to specific reasons/needs. I know very few who shop based on noise at particular speeds, most either accept the sound levels, which range from pitch to volume to whatever, as an irritant.
Often shielding of the motor can contain any noise that might be a factor in other areas around the motor.
I am not a manufacturer of motors, except for the modification of specialty applications. For example we changed out several hundred motors for the National Weather Service contained in a dipole antenna body. Existing motor was a single phase permanent split capacitor synchronous motor, 110 volt, 1800 RPM DESIRED, due to a feedback tachometer mounted on the motor to verify the speed as these receivers accepted upper air feedback of weather conditions, from weather balloons launched two to three times a day. Location and tracking of the balloons were critical, if the tach feedback was off by one rpm [from 1800] the tracking electronics could not deal with the inconsistency.
I attempted to purchase motors for this application, but because the motor was mounted vertically in a solid cone, no ventilation, plus they were single phase, with induction synchronous rotors, voltage was a consideration, and the units were mounted from Hawaii to Guam to Florida, across the US and Territories.
I took the existing single phase PSC SYNCH MOTOR, which few ever had the torque, or would stay at 1800 rpm, or fail do to the heat.
While they only needed around 300 plus active motors, they needed half as many as spares, considering the past history of failures and the lack of ability to deliver accurate timely weather data over an exact path.
It was not a case of excessive NOISE, it was a case of perceived sound, it sounded different, so for those involved with any Governmental Agency knows that form, fit, function is their mantra and excuse to not accept anything.
We had several complaints of noise, turns out the noise was in no way a danger or at levels of any concern, just different.
While testing 4. 6. 8. 2 pole motors for "noise" in a controlled environment, is only data from those conditions, out in the wild west, those conditions are going to change, mounting, structure, all explained above will affect the motor's "noise" levels, or perceived "noise" levels.
In the fact that no load, [NEMA] testing is not going to be exacting as other possible more exacting, different parameter type testing, if noise is a concern, is under full load, which again is a variable.
How many vanilla NEMA motors ever operate at "full load"?
Many run below the full load capacity, let alone service factor capacity, some operate slightly overloaded, few ever see the exact applied voltages, with changing of applied voltages during seasonal or daily changes in many variables effecting voltage supply.
Babbitt Bearings, properly cared for and maintained will last much longer than anti-friction bearings. Properly set up and aligned there is no contact between the babbitt and the journal other that a scuff mark at the bottom that is caused by minimal contact at starting. As long as the motor is properly aligned to the load, the oil is kept clean and continually fed to the bearing the bearing will last a very long time. There are two simple checks that should be done to check if all is well on Babbit Bearings. The first one is oil sampling. Cheap insurance which will tell you what contaminants are in the oil. The second one is an annual check on the air gap at the bottom of the motor. If the air gap is found to be getting smaller your bearings are wearing.
Babbitt bearings are normally found in larger motors and almost always in direct coupled applications.
In high speed motors the replacement of anti-friction bearings is essential every 1-2 years depending on the severity of the application. It is not uncommon to find a 2-pole Babbit Bearing motor, 20 years old or more with the original bearings. These motors can be overhauled and the windings cleaned up on a regular basis but the original bearings are re-installed.
Babbitt bearings are also affected by shaft currents and we often find a NDE babbitt bearing insulated from the housing.
Babbitt Bearings are also much quieter than anti-friction bearings. Another area where sleeve bearings are very common is in the fan motors in home furnaces. If ball bearings were installed in these motor you would get and annoying clicking sound coming through your ductwork. The bearings in these motors are not made from babbitt, there are made form an oil-bronze material.
Babbitt Bearings are much more expensive than anti-friction bearings and you can't buy them off the shelf like a 6316. If they are worn, (normally because of mis-aligniment or lack of proper lubrication), they need to be re-babbitted. For a high speed motor with a 3" journal the re-babitting can cost in the region of $1,200.00 to $2,000.00 per bearing.
When a new motor is being purchased it will cost much more with Babbitt Bearings than it will wit anti-friction bearings and users should be aware that, in the event of a bearing failure, it will not be a 2-3 day turn around on the motor.
Babbit bearings have an initial high cost but properly looked after they are more economical over a long period of time.
Some motor manufacturers go from CU to Al because they try to reduce costs.
Then it just works the other way. Al wire needs to have a larger diameter than Cu if you want the same motor performance.
Then you may face problems with the slot opening and the slot fill, there may not even be enough space at all for the Al wire. You may need to change your lamination.
Furthermore, the blade gap of your inserting tools may not be suitable anymore so you will need a new set of toolings.
Also the end turns will have more volume which may cause problems at the end turn forming and even assembling process.
Besides, due to the properties of Al wire, your rejects will increase during the manufacturing process.
These are just a few examples.
Before changing to Al wire, manufacturers should consider the pros and cons carefully.
Some may invest more than they will safe with the cheaper Al wire.
Copper - at least at the purities and alloys used for electrical conductors - is fairly scarce, which tends to make the price pretty volatile. Aluminum, on the other hand, is fairly abundant in the alloys used for conductors ... and hence pretty stable in price (not to mention cheaper than copper).
Neither raw material (copper or aluminum) is used in its pure form for electrical conductors. Both have some other materials added, primarily for mechanical strength. The key factor in determining how much of each to use is the conductivity: 98 percent for the typical copper alloy (ref UNC C11000), 61 percent for the 1970s aluminum alloy (ref EC 1350), or 56 percent for the modern aluminum alloys used in busbar material (ref alloy 6101).
Tensile strength (same cross section) lb/in2: Cu = 50000 Al = 32000
Tensile strength (same conductivity) lb/in2: Cu = 50000 Al = 50000
Weight (same conductivity) lb : Cu = 100 Al = 54
Cross section (same conductivity) % : Cu = 100 Al = 156
Coefficient expansion per deg C x 10^-6 : Cu = 16.6 Al = 23.0
The choice between Al and Cu usually boils down to either cost or weight.
Care must be taken because Al is not as strong (more problems with the forces generated by fault conditions) AND because it has a higher susceptibility to dimensional change under high temperature conditions (such as those occurring during electrical faults).
Another consideration for an aluminum-winding machine are the connection points for real-world transmission: care in terminations is a must. Galvanic action between dissimiar materials is a known difficulty that can be further aggravated by airborne (chemical) contaminants.
For a DC Motor Armature, There is a simple method of determining the condition of the Armature.
Drop Test Method: Give a DC Voltage across the commutator Segments for one pole pitch area from a Power supply or Battery. Connect Positive end of the DC power supply at one end and the Negative end at the opposite end.
For example if the total number of commutator segments are say, 40 in the armature to be tested and the total number of poles is 4, then one pole pitch area will be 10 segments.
Now measure with a Milli volt meter say 0 to 10 millivolts range, the Voltage Drop at the center point, that is between 5th and 6th segment. again rotate the Armature Clockwise or Anti clock wise and measure the next set of segments.
Like this complete measurements for all the 40 segments pairs. simultaneously recording the readings.
If there is any defect in the winding, that is shorted or open, it will show in the readings.
If the reading of Milli volt Meter is uniform for the all the 40 segments pairs, than the armature is good. If there is short between winding or the winding coil between one particular pair of segments, the reading will be less drop in millivolts. If there is any loose or open, the reading will be more than normal readings. Thus one can determine the condition of a DC armature for short or lose or open winding.
When testing a DC armature there is a series of tet should that should be done. The first is. Ground insulation test or more commonly known as a mugger test, usually done at 500VDC. If the ground reading is above 1 meg ohm the armature is good to go to the next test which is a bar to bar test. There are 2 pieces of equipment to conduct this test the best. One of these combined with the mugger test will tell you if the armature is satisfactory return to service. The first bar to bar test is conducted with a "DLRO" digital low resistance ohm meter. The meter will circulate about 8-10 amps thru adjacent successive bars and measure the milli ohm resistance of the circuit. If there is more than a 5% variation then the armature is shorted turn to turn. The next tester which is called a high frequency bar to bar tester. The tester has 4 tet points and as you move it around the armature a high frequency voltage is introduced across the pairs of successive windings and the meter will show a variation if there is a shorted turn. If it passes either of these 2 bar to bar test and the ground insulation test then it can be returned to service.
I am currently investigating the design of a three phase axial flux PM motor, but replacing conventional materials with high temperature superconductors. I'm interested to know the thoughts of group members regarding design rules/rules of thumb relating to the number of stator coils and rotor poles. Many in the amateur wind turbine community seem to use a 4:3 ratio (magnets:coils), but I can't seem to find anything 'official' on the topic.
An equal number of magnets: coils would cause problems with starting the motor and with cogging/torque pulsations.
The only textbook I've found dedicated to the design of axial flux PM motors is Jacek Gieras's book on 'Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines', but this seems only to mention examples of coils: poles ratios (e.g., 12 stator coils and 8 rotor poles, 9/8, etc.).
"Design of Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors" by J.R. Hendershot Jr. and TJE Miller is an excellent design book and pages 3-50 thru 3-55 illustrate the 3 phase winding patterns you describe (8/6, 8/9, and 4/6). Whether axial air gap or radial air gap the principles are the same. I assume with an axial air gap machine you do not want phases overlapping each other, that is the common factor in the three patterns above. This keeps winding simple and compact and is commonly used on smaller 3 phase brushless motors.
These windings do not automatically guarantee a true BEMF sine wave form. If you want a sinusoidal waveform you will have to do some work on tailoring the magnetic design (gap between magnets, skewing, air gap profiling, etc.). Some servo motor manufacturers do just this to get a true BEMF sine wave to match their sine wave controllers for ripple free torque operation.
Another decision is does the coil center have a laminated steel pole or only and air center. Air gap windings should be axially thin and have no hysteresis component which is good for high speed operation. A slotted pole winding can handle more wire bulk but a laminated construction may be difficult to implement, you might look at an AC Powdered Metal for the Armature and teeth.
If you allow phase coils to overlap there are a great many other winding patterns possible (listed in the reference book), some are better for Trapezoid controller drive and some are better for sine wave controller drive (BEMF should match controller drive type). Just depends on you end goals.
AC Motors - Variable torque: AC motors have a speed torque characteristic that varies as the square of the speed. For example, an 1,800/900-rpm electrical motor that develops 10 hp at 1,800 rpm produces 2.5 hp at 900 rpm. Since ac motors face loads, such as centrifugal pumps, fans, and blowers, have a torque requirement that varies as the square or cube of the speed, this ac motor characteristic is usually adequate.
AC Motors - Constant torque: These ac motors can develop the same torque at each speed, thus power output varies directly with speed. For example, an ac motor rated at 10 hp at 1,800 rpm produces 5 hp at 900 rpm. These ac motors are used in applications with constant torque requirements such as mixers, conveyors, and compressors.
1- Synchronous motors generally offer more efficiency than induction ones, and hence in higher ratings (about 5000 hp and higher) they may be more cost effective considering Life Cycle Costs. The exact size of preference to switch to Synchronous shall be determined based on LCC analysis of specific application.
2- A Large reciprocating compressor is a highly variable load and a synchronous motor will keep its speed in this situation while the induction motor would respond with fluctuating speed.
3- Based on API 618 (with reference to IEC and NEMA), a synchronous motor used for reciprocating compressor may tolerate 66% variation in current, while an induction motor is allowed to have only 40% variation in current which in larger compressors may be exceeded (because of variable load).Also Higher efficiency induction motors with less slip, cause more current variations and are prohibited.
Synchronous motors are characterized by limited starting torque, the ability to actively control power factor and less current in-rush than the induction motor. The synchronous motor also requires active matching of torque demand with motor output. Synchronous motors started “across-the–line” also produce oscillatory torques at the twice slip frequency during acceleration (i.e., starting at 120 Hz and decreasing to 0 Hz at full speed). These torques generally require additional transient torsional analysis because of the potential for damage.
Synchronous motors are usually advantageous on slow speed applications (e.g., low speed reciprocating compressors operating from 200-400 RPM) and also on machines larger than about 10,000 to 15,000 HP. With both motor types, it is important to match the compressor torque versus speed requirements with motor torque versus speed capabilities as discussed in Sections 6.0 and 7.0. Both induction and synchronous motor types can be coupled with a VFD for variable speed operation.
If the motor is being driven by a variable frequency drive with sophisticated drive algorithms, i.e. controllers that can track the load torque variations, then both the efficiency and transient stability problems can be solved together.
The other significant thing is the starting problem. The transient load torque is also present at starting so the motor has to be able to accelerate through the load transients and be capable of starting when the compressor is sitting at the highest load.
How to add a separate AC line reactor / DC choke in case the variable frequency drive doesn't have it? Can we use a separate line reactor if it's not built in with the VFD drive? What all parameters I would have to look into, if I want to add the line reactor? Is there any sizing criteria? How would I have to install it?
It depends on how much THD you want to have and how much money you want to spend. If this is for electric motor protection there are additional methods of spike suppression and better reactors/filters.
Size for amps and voltage.
THD will vary will design and specifications. You want the reactor to filter or tune out the unwanted frequencies, mainly the AC drive carrier frequency. One often overlooked parameter is what rejection frequency the reactor is wound for. You want a reactor wound for the rejection frequency you have your VFD drive set at.
This will make you want to raise the carrier frequency to make the reactor smaller, less turns, and less expensive. Before you do this look at the de-rating tables and other factors involved with a high carrier frequency.
It's always best to first check with your VFD installation and operation documentation. It is likely that the motor drives manufacturer makes recommendations for reactor ratings. That said 3 to 5% reactance at the VFD drive's rated input current is always a good solution. If there is no internal bus choke or reactor in the VFD then use 5%. Don't sweat the voltage drop. The drop is in quadrature to the source voltage and so mostly subtracts at a 90 degree angle. Thus, the drop will be less than half the %reactance.
As far as I know all variable frequency drives with vector control can also be run with just V/F control.
A drive in vector control mode has several tuning parameters to increase or decrease motor performance. With factory default parameters a VFD in vector mode will have higher performance than a drive in V/F mode. Sort of like a "sport or racing" computer option in a modern automobile.
Depending on the application using vector control can use a lot more power. If you have a rapidly surging load the vector may be really struggling to keep the speed constant while a variable frequency drive in V/F mode never notices the speed change. If the application has a steady mid-range speed and load or has a slow rate of change a vector and V/F may be very close in amp draw.
If you have an application where you need the vector for starting or stopping quickly but you are using a lot of current at speed you can change vector parameters to reduce the current. In some applications it is cheaper to oversize a V/F drive to get starting or stopping torque if you don't need precise speed control.
I accept the fact that, in the practice, V/f is considered by many the better choice for fan loads, but I see few reasons why V/f approach could result in better efficiency.
One reason could be that, since it doesn't try to regulate anything, practically it can't oscillate due to weak stability, although oscillations may still occur (I've seen a heavily vibrating torque measurement on a fan driven by a V/f variable frequency drive).
Another could be that, while non-linear V/f curves (suitable to non-linear loads as fans) are quite common, the same is not done for the flux reference (magnitude) in vector control.
And, of course, the few parameters of a V/f control are far easier to tune than a vector scheme (which companies don't really share).
However, one interesting thing that can be done with vector control is, for slow dynamics applications, to automatically tune the flux reference to achieve a minimum loss control during the control operation. I don't think this would be possible with V/f.